Surveillance

Surveillance

Air traffic is growing at a significant rate. There is also an increasing demand for more operating flexibility to improve aircraft efficiency and to reduce the impact of air travel on the environment. Improved tools are required to safely manage increasing levels and complexity of air traffic. Aeronautical surveillance is one such important tool in the air traffic management (ATM) process. (ICAO, 2020)

As far as air traffic control is concerned, the following section offers an overview of the most common ground-based surveillance technology and equipment:

Ground-Based Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a discrete, near real-time air traffic surveillance system. The system automatically pulls data from aircraft equipped with an ADS-B transponder – requiring no pilot or external input – and regularly broadcasts it for detection by ATM providers and other airspace users.

Space-based ADS-B

While ADS-B receivers have traditionally been located on the ground, these ADS-B sensors are now located on low earth orbiting satellites opening the door to global surveillance coverage by providing line-of-sight well beyond the limits of ground-based networks.

Multilateration (MLAT) – Surface Detection

Multilateration (MLAT) provides surveillance using existing transponder technology. It improves situational awareness where radar coverage is not available, supporting complex traffic flow management and safer, more efficient customer operations. MLAT is also used for airport surface surveillance, providing full coverage of runways, taxiways and terminal areas.

Multilateration – Wide Area Multilateration

Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) is a system of ground stations that receive signals from aircraft transponders to determine aircraft position. This information can then be used by an air traffic controller for SSR-equivalent surveillance and separation.

Radar

The air navigation system uses radar surveillance for airport, approach and area control. Two types of radar equipment are used. Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) are typically installed near airports, while Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) are found everywhere. They are sometimes collocated.

Primary Surveillance Radar

A PSR locates and displays aircraft position (range and azimuth) based solely on the radio echo.

Secondary Surveillance Radar

An SSR interrogates an aircraft’s transponder, which causes the transponder to send back an identification code or aircraft ‘TAG’. The radar will display the ‘TAG’ and other information returned, along with the position, for the air traffic controller.

Airport Surface Detection Equipment

At some larger airports, surface aircraft and vehicle traffic are monitored during periods of reduced visibility using what is called an “Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System A-SMGCS”. The Ground Controller in the control tower monitors movements of aircraft and vehicles on a map display based on data from a high definition PSR. Runways, taxiways, building outlines and other obstacles are typically overlaid on the radar display. (NAV Canada, 2020)

 

 

WHY DO WE NEED SURVEILLANCE?

Surveillance plays an important role in ATM. The ability to accurately determine, track and update the position of aircraft has a direct influence on the minimum distances by which aircraft must be separated (i.e. separation standards), and therefore on how efficiently a given airspace may be utilized.

Accurate surveillance can be used as the basis for automated alerting systems. The ability to accurately track aircraft enables ATC to be alerted when an aircraft is detected to deviate from its assigned altitude or route or when the future positions of two or more aircraft are predicted to fall below minimum acceptable separation standards. Alerts may also be provided when the aircraft strays below the minimum safe altitude or enters a restricted area. (ICAO, 2020)

 

 


For more information, visit one of the following WIKIFATCA pages:

Surveillance 91

  1. AAS 1.14 SPACE-BASED AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE – BROADCAST
  2. AAS 1.19 OPERATIONAL USE OF DOWN-LINK AIRCRAFT PARAMETERS (DAPS)
  3. AAS 1.2 AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE (ADS)
  4. AAS 1.3 MODE S DEVELOPMENT
  5. ADME 2.11 THE APPLICATION OF COCKPIT DISPLAY OF TRAFFIC INFORMATION (CDTI) IN ADVANCED SURFACE MOVEMENT GUIDANCE SYSTEM (A-SMGCS) OPERATIONS
  6. ADME 2.4 SURFACE MOVEMENT GUIDANCE & CONTROL SYSTEMS
  7. ADME 2.6 RESPONSIBILITY AND FUNCTIONS OF AERODROME CONTROLLERS WITH REGARD TO SURFACE MOVEMENT
  8. ADS-B
  9. ADS-B Operations
  10. Advanced-Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems
  11. Aerodrome Radar Control Rating
  12. Air Traffic Control Separation Monitoring Tool (ASMT)
  13. Apron Management Services Provided by ATCOs
  14. ASAS-TN2 – Airborne Separation Assistance System Thematic Network 2
  15. ATC Collision Avoidance Techniques
  16. ATS 3.20 SHORT TERM CONFLICT ALERT
  17. ATS 3.25 SURVEILLANCE: IN-TRAIL PROCEDURES ITP
  18. ATS 3.34 TRANSPONDER MANDATORY ZONES
  19. ATS 3.9 RADAR MONITORING
  20. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) General Issues
  21. Blended Airspace
  22. Conspicuity and ATS Surveillance
  23. Description of A ‘Multi-Lateration’ Airport Ground System
  24. Development of Mode S as a Surveillance Tool
  25. Development of Policy on Mode S
  26. Display of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surveillance Data on Controller Working Position
  27. Flight Information Service
  28. Fusion of ADS and Radar Data
  29. Investigate ADS-B Applications – Incorporation in A-SMGCS
  30. Investigate ADS-B Applications – Single Emergency Code Management
  31. Investigate Navigation and Surveillance Provided by a Single Position Information System
  32. Investigate Operational Aspects of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast
  33. Investigate Potential Applications of ADS-B
  34. Investigate Route Conformance Monitoring System
  35. Investigate the Differences Between Dependent and Independent Surveillance in Determining Position Reports
  36. Investigate the Use and Impact of “Electronic Means Complementing Visual Observation in Tower Control” on the ATCO
  37. Investigate the Use of Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) with Enhanced Surface Movement Guidance Control Systems (SMGCS)
  38. Investigation of the Nomenclature used in the Acronyms CIB & CIC
  39. LM 11.2.7 USE OF ATS SURVEILLANCE DATA IN THE PROVISION OF NON-SURVEILLANCE SERVICES
  40. Mixed and Segregated Modes of ADS Operations
  41. Mode S – Review of Policy
  42. Operational use of DAPs (Down-link Aircraft Parameters)
  43. Presentation of ADS Data to the Controller
  44. Produce a Definition of Controller Tools
  45. Produce Definition of Short Term Conflict Alert
  46. Radio Mandatory Zones / Transponder Mandatory Zones
  47. Rating for Automatic Dependent Surveillance Control
  48. Recent Developments in Mode S
  49. Reduction of Non-radar Separation Standards Using ADS
  50. Responsibilities & Functions of Aerodrome Controllers with Regard to Surface Movement
  51. Responsibilities and Functions of Aerodrome Controller with regard to Surface Movements – Legal Aspects
  52. Review Issues in the Application of Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) in Advanced Surface Movement Guidance System (A-SMGCS) Operations
  53. Review of Policy on Ground Based Safety Nets
  54. Review of Policy on Surface Movement Radar
  55. Review of Policy: Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA)
  56. Review of Technical Policy
  57. Review Policy on Mode S – Operational Requirements
  58. Review policy on Surface Guidance Movement and Control Systems
  59. Review Policy on Surveillance
  60. Review the Issues Concerning Controller Intervention Buffer
  61. Safe Use of TCAS/ACAS and the Impact of Mode S Development
  62. Short Term Conflict Alert
  63. SSR Mode S Improvements in SSR Techniques and ATC Aspects of Air/Ground Data Links
  64. Study ADS-B Applications – Used in ITP
  65. Study Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) to Update IFATCA Provisional Policy
  66. Study Mode S Transponders
  67. Study Space-Based Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast
  68. Study Transponder Mandatory Zones
  69. SUR 6.1 SURVEILLANCE DEFINITIONS
  70. SUR 6.2 ADS-B: SINGLE EMERGENCY CODE MANAGEMENT
  71. Surface Movement Guidance Control Systems (SMGCS)
  72. Surveillance – Investigate (Wide Area) Multilateration
  73. Surveillance – Investigate the Use of Re-Transmitted Data to Aircraft (ADS-R and TIS-B)
  74. Surveillance – Provide an update on ITP
  75. Surveillance – Study Issues Associated with Incorrect Flight Identification
  76. Surveillance Applications Policy – Applications of Radar Monitoring
  77. Surveillance Applications Policy – ASAS
  78. Surveillance Applications Policy – Conformance Monitoring
  79. Surveillance Applications Policy – Review Policy on Radar Monitoring
  80. Surveillance Applications Policy – Operational Applications of ADS-B
  81. Surveillance Applications Policy – Review Policy on ADS
  82. Technical Aspects of Medium Term Conflict Detection
  83. The Provision of Surveillance Approach and Aerodrome Control Services as Combined Function
  84. The Use of ATS Surveillance Data in the Provision of Non-Surveillance Services
  85. The Use of Dependent Surveillance
  86. The Use of Safety Nets in ATM
  87. The Use of Voice Communications in ADS Operations
  88. TPM Review – ATS Editorials
  89. TPM Review – Reference Table
  90. TPM Review – Surveillance
  91. TRNG 10.4.5 AUTOMATIC DEPENDANT SURVEILLANCE (ADS) CONTROL RATING

Last Update: September 19, 2020  

October 27, 2019   398   superman    WIKI  

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